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Mark London Williams is full of reflection as the year comes to a close in L. Color and low-light are also on his mind with a chat to Mary Poppins Returns costume designer Sandy Powell seguing nicely across to production designer on Camerimage winner The Favourite , Fiona Crombie.

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Johnson and Will Merrick what being a "virtual cinematographer" entails, and visits the opening of Adobe's new "digital sandbox" in Santa Monica. As another CineGear Expo comes to a conclusion, Mark London Williams ponders on its expansion and 'future proofing' the show and its gear.

Across The Pond Our exclusive monthly column from L.

Across The Pond Archives - British Cinematographer

A on the latest developments in the industry. A recently, Mark London Williams has been gearing up for the forthcoming Emmy awards, hot on the trail of a tremendous trio of nominated cinematographers, hearing from M. Image of M. David Mullen - Credit: Nicole Rivelli. In his latest column from L. Mark London Williams has been about all things Cine Gear this past month, and he gives us a flavour of what was happening at this year's gathering, with words from event honoree George Spiro Dibie ASC; as well as taking a look at director Joanna Hogg's upcoming autobiographical film The Souvenir.

As awards season wraps up and he contemplates events ahead, Mark London Williams shifts his focus in L. Some plants live entirely underwater, some simply float, and others split the difference. A mix of these three broad categories tends to be best for most ponds.

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These aquatic plants live entirely underwater, where they generate oxygen, absorb potential contaminants such as nitrates, and help control the growth of algae by consuming nutrients. Submerged plants also offer several passive benefits.

Their shade inhibits the growth of algae, which in turn contributes to healthy oxygen levels. Many oxygenating plants also offer excellent hiding places for eggs and baby fish. Unlike a lot of plants, most submerged plants are hardy enough to survive winter dormancy.


Most can be planted in weighted pots. Water lilies are a notable exception, but the lotus , cattails , and other bog plants tend to prefer warm water and plenty of sunlight. Emergent plants offer the same benefits of shade and cover as submerged plants, and tend to be crucial sources of food for aquatic life.

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While emergent plants can thrive in most hardiness zones, most are not equipped to survive harsh winters. They can be planted in anything from lightly submerged pots to highly saturated soil. They provide a vital if often overlooked zone of interaction between water and air, inviting everything from insects to beneficial pond bacteria to grow on them. Some floating plants consume high levels of oxygen, so they should always be balanced with significant additions of oxygenating plants.

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Some particularly aggressive floating plants, such as water hyacinth , are so disruptive to natural waterways that they are banned in some locations. Floating pond plants are sensitive to cold, and most varieties do not tolerate temperatures below 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Plants that grow entirely underwater are vital to the health of your pond or water garden. They act as pond filters for nitrates and other pollutants, absorb nutrients that would otherwise drive the growth of undesirable vegetation, and provide shade that inhibits the overgrowth of algae. But their primary benefit is their ability to generate healthy levels of oxygen for your pond. Because water does not hold oxygen nearly as well as air, your pond must include a continuous, reliable source of oxygen.

At that point, they may recover less readily from injury, be less resilient to changes in weather and food availability, and spawn less successfully.

DO levels below 3. While mechanical pond aerators alone can maintain sufficient DO levels in some ponds, submerged plants are an effective complement, and are more attractive, reliable, and economical, to boot.

They also provide several side benefits.