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It also heralded its own poll results showing that 40 percent believe he's made the economy better. Looking at the class half-filled, it didn't lump the those who think it's worse 22 or the same 34 and wonder why so many don't buy his claims.

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He impugned the reputation of a key part of our democracy. Yet, don't doubt that the White House notion of Trump being a victim of wayward law enforcement is an easy sell to the Fox audience and Trump's base. Send Donald Trump and the huge numbers of Republicans with scant respect for the press the court transcript. In the process, they confronted not just Nassar but USA Gymnastics, "which over the course of our investigation often seemed more interested in protecting its brand than its gymnasts. And yet I feel what we do now is perhaps more important than ever.

Is journalism an imperfect profession? But it also is — and hopefully always be — a noble endeavor.

Is This a Picture of a Male-Only Refugee Caravan Heading for U.S. Border?

Their work has been truly amazing and inspiring — and a powerful reminder of why journalism matters. Smart and very hard-working, with a craving to be seen as a serious political commentator that didn't work at CNN , there's a chameleon-like adaption to his surroundings that's at the core of a harsh review of his new book, which his right-wing publisher calls "a stunning expose" about the press trying to delegitimize Trump. Writing in The Atlantic , Alex Putterman notes the dramatic testimony of Olympics star Aly Raisman but also how, "Until that point, the case had gotten relatively little national attention.

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That a reckoning arrived as soon as the story reached the mainstream consciousness did not seem like a coincidence. In Slate, Seth Stevenson seeks to dissect conservative firebrand Ben Shapiro , who's been both deriding liberals and pushing back on Trump. It leaves him "with an ancient dilemma: Is the enemy of my enemy my friend? Shapiro is ascendant, with a growing media empire and a large audience who adores him. Should there arise a constitutional crisis in which this president attempts to roll his tanks metaphorical or otherwise over the ramparts of American democracy, I will be relying on influential right-wing figures like Ben Shapiro to help America hold the line.

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The question I keep asking myself is: Will he? Outside Magazine , a great publication, began its life in a cruddy building on a dingy block on Chicago's North Side before long ago moving to Santa Fe. Now it's heralded in NiemanLab for a very connected effort to diversity its audience, as partly evidenced by surveying readers last year on sexual harassment.

Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke very mad. It included a picture of him with fishing rod and said, "Zinke had already rigged his fishing rod when our writer showed up to interview him at the edge of a lake in Glacier National Park. He'd rigged it backwards.

Epistemic Luck

And if you ever doubted the link between aggressively recruiting a diverse workforce and revitalizing editorial content, this is a case study. Now she's gone and it's unceasing in calling out the administration , as well as several prominent athletic coaches, for proving to be spineless in the fact of the damning evidence against former MSU doctor Larry Nassar.

It's not unusual to call a newspaper, announce your canceling and then have the call center person in El Salvador or India maybe offer you a way cheaper deal to stick around. The worst wildfire in California history started Dec.

Ecological fallacy can also refer to the following fallacy: the average for a group is approximated by the average in the total population divided by the group size. Suppose one knows the number of Protestants and the suicide rate in the USA, but one does not have data linking religion and suicide at the individual level. If one is interested in the suicide rate of Protestants, it is a mistake to estimate it by the total suicide rate divided by the number of Protestants.

A third example of ecological fallacy is when the average of a population is assumed to have an interpretation in terms of likelihood at the individual level. For instance, if the average score of group A is larger than zero, it does not mean that a random individual of group A is more likely to have a positive score.

Similarly, if a particular group of people is measured to have a lower average IQ than the general population, it is an error to conclude that a randomly selected member of the group is more likely to have a lower IQ than the average general population. Mathematically, this comes from the fact that a distribution can have a positive mean but a negative median. This property is linked to the skewness of the distribution. The average score is 51 points. Recognize that although correlation can indicate the existence of a causal relationship, it is not a sufficient condition to definitively establish such a relationship.

This dictum does not imply that correlations cannot indicate the potential existence of causal relations. However, the causes underlying the correlation, if any, may be indirect and unknown, and high correlations also overlap with identity relations tautology where no causal process exists.

Numerous 'coincidences' between the Lincoln and Kennedy assassinations are not really so amazing.

Consequently, establishing a correlation between two variables is not a sufficient condition to establish a causal relationship in either direction. Many statistical tests calculate correlation between variables. A few go further and calculate the likelihood of a true causal relationship. Examples include the Granger causality test and convergent cross mapping. In a widely studied example, numerous epidemiological studies showed that women who were taking combined hormone replacement therapy HRT also had a lower-than-average incidence of coronary heart disease CHD , leading doctors to propose that HRT was protective against CHD.

But randomized controlled trials showed that HRT caused a small but statistically significant increase in risk of CHD. Re-analysis of the data from the epidemiological studies showed that women undertaking HRT were more likely to be from higher socio-economic groups with better-than-average diet and exercise regimens. The use of HRT and decreased incidence of coronary heart disease were coincident effects of a common cause i.

As with any logical fallacy, identifying that the reasoning behind an argument is flawed does not imply that the resulting conclusion is false. In the instance above, if the trials had found that hormone replacement therapy caused a decrease in coronary heart disease, but not to the degree suggested by the epidemiological studies, the assumption of causality would have been correct, although the logic behind the assumption would still have been flawed.

Less clear-cut correlations are also possible. For example, causality is not necessarily one-way; in a predator-prey relationship, predator numbers affect prey, but prey numbers e. In this type of logical fallacy, one makes a premature conclusion about causality after observing only a correlation between two or more factors.

Generally, if one factor A is observed to only be correlated with another factor B , it is sometimes taken for granted that A is causing B, even when no evidence supports it. This is a logical fallacy because there are at least five possibilities:. In other words, there can be no conclusion made regarding the existence or the direction of a cause and effect relationship only from the fact that A and B are correlated.